Measuring overachievement in football teams

eXpected Goals (xG) is a popular method of answering that age old question of which team ‘deserved’ to win a match. It does this by assigning a probability of a goal being scored from every opportunity based upon various metrics, such as the distance from goal, number of defenders nearby, and so on. By comparing a team’s actual standings with those from the output of an xG model we get a retrospective measure of how well a team is doing given their chances.